The mutual repulsion of excess positive charges on a spherical conductor distributes them uniformly on its surface. The resulting electric field is perpendicular to the surface and zero inside.
Why electric field lines are perpendicular to the surface?
Since electric field exerts a force on the charges, now we have a force on the charges along the surface. This force isn’t balanced, so it will then move charges around i.e, there would be surface currents. So, to avoid that electric field must emanate perpendicular to surfaces.
Why electric field lines perpendicular at a point on a potential surface of a conductor?
this is because there is no potential gradient along any direction parallel to the surface , and so no electric field parallel to the surface. This means that the electric lines of force are always at right angle to the equipotential surface.
Is electric field always perpendicular to equipotential surface?
The equipotential surface is any surface in which the potential value is constant in any point on that surface. … The electric field is always perpendicular to the surface because in the equipotential surface there is no potential difference along any direction which is parallel to the equipotential surface.
Can electric lines appear as closed loops?
Electric field lines start (or diverge) from the +ve (positive) charge and terminate (or converge) on negative charge. If the electric field lines form a closed loop, these lines must originate and terminate on the same charge which is not possible because electric field lines always move from positive to negative.
What is the relation between electric field and potential?
The relationship between potential and field (E) is a differential: electric field is the gradient of potential (V) in the x direction. This can be represented as: Ex=−dVdx E x = − dV dx . Thus, as the test charge is moved in the x direction, the rate of the its change in potential is the value of the electric field.
Why electric field inside a conductor is zero?
Due to a large number of electrons, the force of repulsion acting in between them is also very high. Hence in order to minimize the repulsion between electrons, the electrons move to the surface of the conductor. Hence we can say that the net charge inside the conductor is zero.
Is true for electric lines force?
Electric field lines do not form any closed loops. The statement is true because the electric field lines start from positive charge and end on negative charge. Since the starting and ending point of the electric field lines is different, a loop can never be closed.
Where is the electric field the strongest?
The field is strongest where the lines are most closely spaced. The electric field lines converge toward charge 1 and away from 2, which means charge 1 is negative and charge 2 is positive.
Why are electric field lines perpendicular to the surface of a conductor Class 12?
Thus, the electrostatic field at the surface of a charged conductor will be always perpendicular to the surface. … So that the electrostatic field inside the conductor is zero. In the static situation, no excess charges will be present inside the conductor.
What is the angle between electric field and equipotential surface?
Now, according to the given question, we know that when the potential becomes constant, the negative potential gradient also becomes zero, which is necessary for the need of the electric field to be always normal with the surface. Thus, the angle between electric lines of force and equipotential surface is 90∘.